mRNA vaccines are a newer vaccine technology, that are superior in many ways t previous types of vaccines. One older type of vaccine includes inactivated vaccines, where you are injected with a virus that is made to be inactive. Live attenuated virus vaccines are composed of a virus that is still alive but weakened, so your immune system can easily ward them off. Additionally, past vaccines contained adjuvants, or other ingredients to elicit a strong immune response.
The mRNA vaccine contains very few ingredients, including just the mRNA of the the spike protein of SARS-CoV2. This mRNA is NOT capable of integrating into the genome in any way.
What happens is this mRNA is seen and taken up by cells in the body. Then these cells use tiny cell machines called ribosomes that turn this mRNA into a protein that looks like a protein from the Covid19 virus. The immune system sees the cells that are expressing this protein, understands that it is bad, and makes antibodies against it.
Through this process your body creates many antibodies so that the next time you encounter covid, it will be made inactive right away.
Here is a fun and informative diagram, let me know if you have any questions!
Brought to you by the #HerdImmunityProject